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The history of United States coinage is a story that parallels the rise of America. Starting from a humble beginning in a basement in Philadelphia in the first few years of the country, it grew to a large highly sophisticated system that produces millions of coins per year. Due to a lack of silver, the first silver coins produced by the Mint came from silverware contributed by George and Martha Washington. Coins are something we take for granted today and put in jars and baskets on our night stands to accumulate for a rainy day when we need a few extra dollars. For more than half of the history of America, that wouldn't have been possible for the average citizen. It wasn't until after the Civil War that coinage became widely used for all types of transactions. Until that time, barter and money substitutes, such as tokens, script, and foreign coins, were used as a mediums of exchange. During the 1830's, and then again during the Civil War, coins were in such short supply that merchants and private individuals began producing cent-sized coins, just to make change for the day to day transactions. In America, it was legal until 1857 to use foreign money in transactions. The Spanish dollars and their fractional parts, called "bits," were very common during colonial times until the mid-1800s.
30 Minute Book SeriesEach book in the "30 Minute Book Series" is fast paced, well written, and accurate for a book that covers the topic in as much detail as a short book allows. In less than an hour, you can read or listen to the book - a perfect companion for a lunch hour or a nice distraction for a train ride home from work.
About the AuthorDoug West is a retired engineer, small business owner, and an experienced non-fiction writer with several books to his credit. His writing interests are general, with special expertise in science, biographies, numismatics, and "How to" topics. Doug has a Ph.D. in General Engineering from Oklahoma State University.
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This workbook is intendedto help people who are taking or have taken a Golden Book of Happiness Retreat thoroughly study the topic and provide a written record for future reference.
Seleucid Coins, Part I, is the first comprehensive treatment of early Seleucid coinage since Edward T. Newell's Eastern Seleucid Mints (1938) and Western Seleucid Mints (1941). It expands on Newell's catalogues with hundreds of new varieties that have come to light over the past sixty years, bringing together issues described in the scholarly literature and in commercial publications, as well as much material that is published here for the first time. In addition, Houghton and Lorber have critically examined both Newell's attributions and those of other scholars. They propose a number of significant reattributions, some of which redraw the map of Seleucid numismatics. Seleucid Coins is intended to be, first and foremost, a practical resource for coin identification. It is designed to be accessible to beginners and to numismatists who do not specialize in the Seleucids. The catalogues are organized in historical and geographic order, first by reign, then by mint, then by metal, denomination and issue. There are indices that enable searches by control marks, remarkable types, remarkable legends, and countermarks. More than one hundred plates illustrate representative examples of virtually every coin type and denomination from every mint. In addition to an easy entry to the identification of Seleucid coins, the book contains extensive historical and other reference material that allows a deeper understanding of the historical context of Seleucid coin production. There is an introductory essay for each reign, opening with a summary of historical events, and proceeding with an overview of the ruler's coinage, mint policies, and iconographic program. Yet broader overviews are available in the front matter: a chronological table that juxtaposes major historical and numismatic developments, a stemma of Seleucid genealogy, and general observations on mint function and administration. A succession of maps illustrates the changing constellations of Seleucid mints. The appendices offer in-depth treatment of special topics, including bronze denominations and metrology, and countermarks appearing on Seleucid bronze coins. Other appendices are resources for further study: a complete list of hoards containing early Seleucid coins, and detailed surveys of the monetary output of the early Seleucid kings by reign and by region. Seleucid Coins, Part 1, will become an indispensable reference work for collectors, dealers, and scholars, including those in the fields of archaeology, history and art history. It will be followed in about a year by Seleucid Coins, Part 2, covering Seleucus IV through Antiochus XIII.
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